# 100 Fascinating Facts About the Euclid Telescope

Unveiling the Cosmos: 100 Facts About the Euclid Telescope - A Journey into the Depths of Dark Energy and Cosmic Mysteries. Euclid's Near-Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer (NISP) instrument captures a mesmerizing raw image of the sky in infrared light (900–2000 nm). During commissioning, this focused instrument successfully measures the brightness and intensity of light emitted by galaxies at different wavelengths. The image reveals spiral and elliptical galaxies, stars, star clusters, and more, covering a quarter of the full Moon's width and height. While some artifacts like cosmic rays persist, the Euclid Consortium will produce artifact-free, detailed, and razor-sharp science-ready images from longer-exposed survey observations. NISP's vast field of view holds much more to be unveiled, as it is expected to capture light for roughly five times longer during nominal operation, revealing countless distant galaxies. Credit: ESA/Euclid/Euclid Consortium/NASA

The Euclid Telescope stands as a beacon of human curiosity, unlocking the secrets of the universe with its cutting-edge technology and unparalleled capabilities. In this article, we delve into 100 captivating facts about the Euclid Telescope, shedding light on its history, design, and the groundbreaking discoveries it has facilitated.

Origins of Euclid: The Euclid Telescope is a space-based observatory named after the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid, emphasizing its mission to explore the geometry of the dark universe.

Cosmic Dark Energy: Euclid's primary objective is to study dark energy, a mysterious force driving the accelerated expansion of the universe.

Collaborative Endeavor: The Euclid mission is a collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC).

Launch Vehicle: Euclid is set to be launched aboard a Soyuz rocket, marking a joint effort between ESA and the Russian space agency Roscosmos.

Scheduled Launch: The Euclid Telescope was launched on July 1, 2023.

Telescope Size: Euclid boasts a telescope with a mirror spanning 1.2 meters in diameter, enabling it to capture high-quality images of the cosmos.

Multi-Band Imaging: The telescope is equipped with a visible and near-infrared imaging camera, allowing it to observe a wide range of wavelengths for a comprehensive cosmic survey.

Survey Area: Euclid's mission involves mapping an impressive 15,000 square degrees of the sky, capturing a vast portion of the universe.

Galaxy Shapes: One of Euclid's goals is to analyze the shapes and distribution of galaxies to understand the influence of dark energy on cosmic structures.

Goldilocks Orbit: Euclid will be positioned at the second Lagrange point (L2), a stable orbit 1.5 million kilometers from Earth, providing an optimal vantage point for its observations.

Five-Year Mission: The primary mission duration for Euclid is set at five years, during which it will conduct an extensive survey of the universe.

Dark Energy Spectrometer: Euclid features a specialized spectrometer to measure the redshift of galaxies accurately, providing crucial data for dark energy studies.

Redshift Universe: By observing redshift, Euclid can determine the velocity and distance of galaxies, unraveling the mysteries of cosmic expansion.

Dark Matter Probes: In addition to dark energy, Euclid aims to investigate the distribution and nature of dark matter, another elusive cosmic component.

Euclid Consortium: Over 1,000 scientists from 16 countries form the Euclid Consortium, collaborating on data analysis and interpretation.

Gravitational Lensing: Euclid employs gravitational lensing as a tool to measure the distribution of matter in the universe, providing insights into its large-scale structure.

Galaxy Clusters: The telescope focuses on studying galaxy clusters, using their abundance and distribution to refine our understanding of cosmic evolution.

Exoplanet Discoveries: While not the primary focus, Euclid's observations may lead to the discovery of new exoplanets within its surveyed regions.

Euclid's Sunshield: A sunshield protects Euclid's delicate instruments from the Sun's radiation, ensuring accurate and reliable observations.

Dark Energy Equation of State: Euclid aims to determine the equation of state for dark energy, providing critical information about its behavior over cosmic time.

Cosmic Microwave Background: Euclid's observations complement those of the Planck satellite, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of the cosmic microwave background.

Cosmic Shear: The phenomenon of cosmic shear, caused by gravitational lensing, is a key focus for Euclid, aiding in the measurement of dark energy's impact on the universe's geometry.

Euclid Science Ground Segment: The Euclid Science Ground Segment is responsible for processing and distributing the vast amounts of data collected by the telescope.

Survey Efficiency: Euclid is designed for high survey efficiency, optimizing its observational strategy to maximize scientific returns.

Crowdsourced Science: Euclid engages citizen scientists through its "Cosmic Cows" project, inviting the public to contribute to galaxy shape analysis.

Euclid Data Processing Centers: Data from Euclid is processed at dedicated centers, where state-of-the-art algorithms transform raw observations into valuable scientific insights.

Legacy Value: Euclid's data will leave a lasting legacy, serving as a rich resource for future generations of astronomers and cosmologists.

Dark Energy Task Force: The Dark Energy Task Force, comprised of experts in cosmology, guides Euclid's mission to ensure its scientific goals are met.

Euclid's International Reach: Beyond Europe, Euclid's impact extends globally, with international partners contributing to its success.

Educational Outreach: Euclid's mission includes extensive educational outreach programs, inspiring the next generation of astronomers and scientists.

Cosmic Surveys: Euclid's surveys will generate detailed maps of cosmic structures, aiding in the understanding of the large-scale distribution of galaxies.

Euclid's Redshift Range: The telescope can measure redshifts up to z ≈ 2, covering a significant portion of cosmic history.

Galaxy Evolution: Euclid's observations contribute to the study of galaxy evolution, providing a timeline of how galaxies have transformed over billions of years.

Euclid's International Science Teams: International teams of scientists collaborate on specific aspects of Euclid's mission, fostering a global approach to cosmic exploration.

Baryon Acoustic Oscillations: Euclid's measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations offer insights into the large-scale structure of the universe, aiding in the understanding of dark energy.

Infrared Spectrograph: Euclid's infrared spectrograph allows it to study the spectral characteristics of distant galaxies, unveiling their composition and properties.

Precision Cosmology: