The Astonishing Atmosphere of WASP-107b as Revealed by James Webb Telescope

JWST's MIRI Instrument Captures the Exquisite Dance of Water Vapour, Sulfur Dioxide, and Silicate Sand Clouds in the Atmosphere of WASP-107b. A Pivotal Milestone in Exoplanetary Exploration. Credits: Klaas Verpoest, Johan Van Looveren, Leen Decin 

Nov 15, 2023 -  The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a cutting-edge space observatory, has once again astounded the scientific community with groundbreaking discoveries. A team of European astronomers, led by researchers from the Institute of Astronomy, KU Leuven, utilized the advanced capabilities of the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) aboard the JWST to unravel the secrets of the nearby exoplanet, WASP-107b. This remarkable study, published in the prestigious journal Nature, unveils a captivating atmosphere filled with water vapour, sulfur dioxide, and even silicate sand clouds.

Exploring WASP-107b's Unique Characteristics:

WASP-107b is no ordinary exoplanet. Orbiting a star slightly cooler and less massive than our Sun, this gaseous giant possesses a mass comparable to Neptune but a size nearly approaching Jupiter. Its distinct 'fluffiness' allows astronomers to delve almost 50 times deeper into its atmosphere compared to our solar system's gas giants, opening a unique window into the exploration of exoplanetary atmospheres.

Unraveling the Chemical Composition:

The team harnessed the fluffiness of WASP-107b to conduct a detailed analysis of its atmosphere. The study, featured in Nature, reveals the presence of water vapour, sulfur dioxide, and silicate clouds. Notably absent is the greenhouse gas methane, offering tantalizing insights into the planet's potentially warm interior and the dynamics of heat energy within its atmosphere.

Unexpected Discoveries: Sulfur Dioxide and Sand Clouds:

Surprisingly, sulfur dioxide, known for the odor of burnt matches, was detected, defying previous models. The study proposes that WASP-107b's fluffy nature accommodates the formation of sulfur dioxide in its atmosphere, despite its host star emitting a relatively small fraction of high-energy photons.

Moreover, high-altitude clouds, consisting of small silicate particles—the primary component of sand—partially obscure water vapour and sulfur dioxide. This marks a significant milestone as astronomers definitively identify the chemical composition of exoplanetary clouds for the first time.

Understanding Sand Clouds on WASP-107b:

The study challenges traditional models, revealing that sand clouds on WASP-107b exist at high altitudes despite the planet's temperature. Silicate particles freeze out to form clouds in gaseous planets, but in this case, sand clouds endure in the outer atmosphere. Lead author Dr. Michiel Min explains the continuous cycle of sublimation and condensation, detailing the enduring presence of sand clouds.

Significance and Future Implications:

This pioneering research not only illuminates the enigmatic world of WASP-107b but also advances our understanding of exoplanetary atmospheres. JWST's MIRI instrument, funded by the Belgian federal science policy office BELSPO, played a key role in this discovery. Lead author Prof. Leen Decin highlights the transformative impact of JWST on exoplanet characterization, reshaping our comprehension of planetary formation and evolution.

The revelations from the James Webb Space Telescope's observations of WASP-107b represent a pivotal moment in exoplanetary exploration. With each discovery, the telescope pushes the boundaries of our understanding, unraveling the complexities of distant worlds and providing unprecedented insights into the chemical symphony of exoplanetary atmospheres.

Source - KU LEUVEN